Instrumental Methods

Analytical chemistry is also focused on improvements in experimental design, chemometrics, and the creation of new measurement tools to provide better chemical information. Analytical chemistry has applications in forensics, bioanalysis, clinical analysis, environmental analysis, and materials analysis.

The instruments and techniques developed by the physicist for the determination of physical constants have furnished the chemical analyst with new devices which can be used for the quantitative and qualitative determination of the elementary composition of substances. These new methods have supplemented the classical methods of gravimetric and volumetric analysis which experienced their greatest growth during the nineteenth century. The physical methods have enabled the analyst to broaden the scope of analysis, since in many cases accurate measurements can be made without destruction of the sample. He is also able to analyze complex mixtures quantitatively, which previously would have presented almost unsurmountable difficulties. The analyst now has at his disposal physical methods which enable him to investigate problems of structure in organic chemistry, reaction kinetics, and even the biochemistry of living cells.